# Piping

## C900 Pipe

C900 is an American Water Works Association (AWWA) standard PVC pressure pipe, for water transmission and distribution applications. It is equivalent to cast iron pipe for the same applications in…

## Invert Level

Invert level is the vertical distance between the lowest point of the interior surface of a flow channel and an arbitrary datum. Generally, the location of this arbitrary reference is…

## SDR 11 vs. SDR 17

The SDR rating scheme for the pipe includes SDR 11 and SDR 17. At a 100°F operating temperature, SDR 11 provides a pressure rating of 126psi vs SDR 17, which…

## Golden Weld – Applications, Codes, Validation, and Procedure

A golden weld, or closure weld, is simply a welded joint that does not undergo pressure tests. Such welds go through extensive non-destructive testing (NDT) to ensure they are defect-free…

## Pipeline Header – Purpose, Design, and Calculation

A pipeline header connects flowlines from several different sources into a single gathering line. In this article, you will learn the purpose of a pipeline header, important factors in its…

## Butt Weld vs Socket Weld

During the construction of various structures, there are different methods of interfacing pipe flanges, fittings, and other connecting parts. Out of these methods, using a butt weld or socket weld…

## Restrained Joint Pipe

A restrained joint pipe serves to prevent separation of joints on a pressurized pipeline due to thrust forces. Generally, in a straight pipe section, hydrostatic forces balance themselves out. Whenever…

## Hazen-Williams vs Darcy-Weisbach

Both Hazen-Williams and Darcy-Weisbach equations compute head loss due to friction in a pipe. Hazen-Williams coefficient is a function of only the pipe roughness vs Darcy-Weisbach which considers internal roughness,…

## 3″ Sewer Pipe – Slope, Dimensions, and Relining

A 3-inch sewer pipe slope should be between 3/16″ and 5/16″ per foot. In this article, we will review how to determine the slope of a 3″ sewer pipe, a…

## SDR 21 vs SDR-26

SDR 21 and SDR 26 are both under the SDR rating system for the pipe. SDR 21 has a 200 psi rating, vs SDR 26 which has a 160 psi…